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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Sat Dec 18, 2010 12:58 am 
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Yesterday and today were kinda busy, so here's a couple quick words related to what I did today.

卒業 sotsugyou graduate / graduation (noun)
卒業する sotsugyousuru to graduate (verb)

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Sat Dec 18, 2010 8:46 pm 
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Shopping
No grammar today, but here's some useful words and phrases to use when shopping.

いらしゃいませ irashaimase welcome (used by store employees to greet customers, there's no need to respond)
ストア sutoa store
スーパー suupaa super market
デパート depaato department store
店 ten suffix added to a noun to indicate a store selling that noun
屋 ya a suffix that's more or less the same as ten in both meaning and use
いくら ikura price/cost
買う kau to buy
売る uru to sell
ショッピングする shoppingu suru to shop
円 en the counter suffix for Yen

"Do you have ____?" ______はありますか。 ____ wa arimasu ka.
"Where is ____?" _____はどこですか。 _____ wa doko desu ka.
"How much?" いくらですか。 ikura desu ka.
"How much is this?" これはいくらですか。 kore wa ikura desu ka.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Sun Dec 19, 2010 2:06 pm 
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Filling Space
In English we use "words" like um and hmm to fill space while talking and other words like uh-huh to show that we're following whatever someone is saying. Japanese has its own words for those purposes. Using them properly goes a long way towards making yourself sound skilled at Japanese (whether you are or aren't).

えと eto: Similar to um or hmm, used to fill the gap while thinking when you're speaking. Both syllables can be rather drawn out if needed (えええとおおお).

はい hai: Means yes but is also frequently interjected when the other person is talking to show that you'yr paying attention (note that use of はい hai in this manner doesn't neccessarily indicate agreement, just that you're following the conversation).

そですか。 so desu ka. Literally means "Is it so?" This can be used normally to double check something that was just said similar to "Really?" but it is also frequently interjected when the other person is talking to show that you're paying attention

____ですか。____ desu ka. The other "Yes, I'm paying attention." phrase is simple. Just take a noun that the speaker just said and add desu ka to the end. While this phrase could be used as an enquiry (e.g. "An airplane?") it's generally just to show that you're following the conversation.

Note that proper use of those last three will make the speaker assume that you're understanding and following the conversation whether you actually are or not (which can be good or bad, depending).

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Mon Dec 27, 2010 1:31 pm 
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Saying What You Like or Dislike
Saying that you like something or someone is pretty easy. Just use the following sentence structure: 私はが好きです。 watashi ha _____ ga suki desu. (As before, the subject can be, and is often, dropped if it's clear from the context. 好き suki is a adjective that means like or love. If you dislike something, replace 好き suki with きらい kirai. If you really like or dislike something add 大 dai (which means big) right before 好き suki or きらい kirai. Here's some sample sentences.

"I like books." 本が好きです。 hon ga suki desu.

"I really like Hiro's cat." ひろさんのねこが大好きです。 hirosan no neko ga daisuki desu.

"Kumiko hates fish." くみこさんは魚がきらいです。 kumikosan ha sakana ga kirai desu.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Tue Dec 28, 2010 12:18 pm 
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Saying You Want Something

If you want to say that you want something (something being an object of some kind) add the adjective ほしい hoshii after the noun and finish the sentence with です desu. You can use a negative form of desu to say that you don't want something (though there are better ways to do so).

"I want ice cream." アイスクリームがほしいです。 aisu-kuri-mu ga hoshii desu.

"I want this game." このゲームがほしいです。 kono ge-mu ga hoshii desu.

"I don't want sushi." すしがほしいでわありません。 sushi ga hoshii dewaarimasen.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Wed Dec 29, 2010 1:11 pm 
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Saying Someone Else Wants Something

While hoshii is fine when saying that you want something or when asking someone if they want something. However, if you want to tell a third party what someone else wants you need to you need to use the following sentence structure: <subject> は ha <direct object> を wo ほしがる。 hoshigaru. Note that ほしがる hoshigaru is a class 1 verb so it conjugates as such. Note that the non past forms of the verb (both polite and regular) indicate a long term desire. For a more immediate desire use the -て いる -te iru form. Also note that を wo is used for the direct object instead of が ga (which is used in regular hoshii sentences).

"My father wants a new car (and has for a long time)." 父は新しい車をほしがります。 chichi ha atarashii kuruma wo hoshigarimasu.

"My little sister wants ice cream." 妹はアイスクリームをほしがっています。 imouto ha aisukurimu wo hoshigatteimasu.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Thu Dec 30, 2010 1:30 pm 
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Saying You Want to Do Something
If you want to do something (something being a verb), take the ます -masu form of the verb and drop the ます -masu (this is known as the conjunctive form) then add the adjective たい -tai to the end. Note that, if you want to be polite, you should add です desu to the end of the sentence since たい -tai isn't a verb. As always, the subjct is frequently dropped if it's obvious from the context.

"I want to eat fruit." くだものを食べたい。 kudamono wo tabetai.

"I want to study Japanese." 日本語を勉強したいです。 nihongo wo benkyoushi-tai desu.

You can also use たい -tai to ask for permission to do something by following the たいです -tai desu with が ga and trailing off (which means something like "but...").

"I want to take a photo but... (can I?)" えを書きたいですが… e wo kakitai desu ga...

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Wed Jan 05, 2011 5:45 am 
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(As a note, I haven't forgotten about this and will be reviving it in earnest sometime later this week. For now, here's a word.)

語 kotoba word

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Fri Jan 07, 2011 10:55 pm 
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((And we're back! I'll try to return this to daily or at least every other day updates.))

Saying Someone Else Wants to Do Something
Once again, when you want to talk about someone else's desire you do it a bit differently than when talking about your own. Start out with the conjunctive form of the verb, just like if you were going to do たい -tai, but add たがる -tagaru instead (as a note, tagaru is a Class 1 verb and conjugates as such). Note that unlike with たい -tai, where the verb can be proceeded by を wo orが ga, tagaru verbs can only use を wo (unless the sentence calls for a different type of verb marker entirely). Also, as with ほしがる hoshigaru, the regular form of たがる tagaru indicates a long term desire while the ている -te iru form indicates a more immediate desire.

"Mr. Smith wants to go to Japan." スミスさんは日本へ行きたがります。 sumisusan ha nihon he ikitagarimasu.

"My mother wants to make steak." 母はステーキを作りたがっています。 haha ha suteeki wo tsukuritagatteimasu.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Tue Jan 11, 2011 6:56 am 
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Saying Something is More X Than Something Else
Want to some one thing is bigger, smaller, older, or whatever than some other thing? Use the following sentence structure. Noun 1 ha Noun 2 yori adjective OR adverb and verb desu. Noun 1 is the thing that is more whatever and the adjective or adverb + verb is whatever that noun is more of.

Kyoto is older than New York. 京都はニューヨックより古いです。 kyoto ha nyuuyoku yori furui desu. (literally: Of Kyoto and New York, the first is older.)

Mt. Everest is taller than Mt. Fuji. エバエスト山は富士山より高いです。 ebaesutoyama ha fujiyama yori takai desu. (As a note, while Mt. Fuji is Fuji Yama (Yama means mountain), it's often respectually called Fujisan instead).

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Fri Jan 21, 2011 10:32 pm 
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Saying is Not as X as Something Else
((Yes, I'm finally updating again. I also make a couple minor fixes to the previous post.))

This is the opposite of the previous grammar point. If you want to say that something is not as big, small, old or whatever as something else use this structure. Noun 1 ha Noun 2 hodo adjective OR adverb and verb desu. Noun 1 is the thing that is less whatever and the adjective or adverb + verb is whatever that noun is less of.

New York is not as old as Kyoto. ニューヨックは京都ほど古いです。 nyuuyoku ha kyoto hodo furui desu. (literally: Of New York and Kyoto, the first is not as old.)

Mt. Fuji is not as tall as Mt. Everest. 富士山はエバエスト山ほど高いです。 fujiyama ha ebaesutoyama hodo takai desu.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Tue Jan 25, 2011 6:53 am 
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Saying Something is the Same as Something Else
To say that two things are more or less the same use this structure. xはyと同じぐらいです。 x ha y to onaji gurai desu. x and y are more or less the same. As a note, 同じ onaji means same and ぐらい gurai means close or more or less. If the things are exactly the same, you can omit gurai. If you want to specify that the things are the same in a certain way, add an adjective or adverb and verb after gurai (note: when adding a verb you omit desu).

"Red apples and yellow apples are about the same." 赤いりんごは黄色いりんごと同じぐらいです。akai ringo ha kiiroi ringo to onaji gurai desu.

"Sakura and Hiro are about the same height." さくらちゃんはひろくんと同じぐらい高いです。 sakurachan ha hirokun to onaji gurai takai desu.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Thu Jan 27, 2011 7:18 am 
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Asking Which Thing is More X
When you ask which of two things is more X use the following structure. xとyとどちら(のほう)が adjective or adverb and verb か。 x to y to dochira (no hou) ga adjective or adverb + verb ka. Note that the part in parentheses is optional and can be dropped. To answer this question you can just say x or xです x desu but the proper answer is: x(のほう)が adjective or adverb + verb。  x (no hou) ga adjective or adverb + verb.

"Which is bigger, Kyuushu or Hokkaido?" きゅうしゅと北海道とどちらのほうが大きいですか。 kyuushu to hokkaidou to dochira no hou ga ookii desu ka.
"Hokkaio is bigger." 北海道のほうが大きいです。 hokkaidou no hou ga ookii desu.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Fri Jan 28, 2011 10:39 pm 
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Saying Which Thing of Several is the Most X
Time for the superlative form. xとyとzの中で、 xが一番 adjective or adverb + verb。 x to y to z no naka de, x ga ichiban adjective or adverb and verb. Note that naka 中 can be replaced with uchi うち without changing the meaning. It literally translates to: "Of x, y, and z, x is the most whatever." You can also replaced the second x with どちら and add a か ka to the end to make it a question.

"Of Mt. Fuji, Mt. Everest, and Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Everest is the tallest." 富士山とエバエスト山とセイントヘレンズ山の中で、エバエスト山が一番高いです。 fujisan to ebaesutoyama to seinto herenzuyama no naka de, ebaesutoyama ga ichiban takai desu.

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 Post subject: Re: Japanese Word Thread
PostPosted: Mon Jan 31, 2011 6:39 am 
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A Note on Adjectives
There are two types of adjectives in Japanese. い i adjectives (so called because they all end with the letter い i) and な na adjectives (so called because they end with the letter な na). Adjectives can come directly before the noun they modify or right before the verb. When na adjectives are used after the noun they modify, the な na at the end is dropped. ((I'll be going more in-depth and giving some examples in the next post.))

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